The National Research Council of Canada (NRC) is contributing to the Government of Canada's climate resiliency efforts by providing guidance, tools and standards, which contribute to long-lasting infrastructure and buildings, including retrofits and upgrades, to help communities build resilience, reduce disaster risks and conserve costs over the long term. This will ensure that both new and existing structures continue to support the health, safety and prosperity of Canadians in current and future climates.
In addition, experts from the NRC's Construction Research Centre contribute science-based research to inform the technical committees in the national model code development system, which are responsible for developing the provisions of the National Model Codes. Read more.
Learn more about how the NRC supports the codes development system.
Program research support
Climate Resilient Buildings and Core Public Infrastructure Initiative (CRBCPI) – 2016 to 2021
In response to the Pan Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change, between 2016 and 2021, the NRC led the Climate Resilient Buildings and Core Public Infrastructure Initiative (CRBCPI) with funding from Infrastructure Canada. The goal of this initiative was to provide the knowledge needed to integrate climate resilience into building and infrastructure design, guides, standards, and codes.
With this funding, the NRC undertook an analysis of the state-of-practice and knowledge gaps related to resilience of buildings, bridges, roads, water/wastewater and urban transit to climate change and extreme events.
Based on this analysis, the NRC launched a number of projects related to buildings, developed new guidance, and collaborated with the CSA Group to update key standards, resulting in a suite of publications, including:
- Future climatic data for the design of buildings and bridges that considers climate change (published 2020)
- Guidance for preventing overheating of buildings (published 2021)
- CSA S478 – Standard on durability in buildings converted from a guideline to a standard (published 2019) informed by NRC experts
- CSA A440 series on fenestration (windows) updated to introduce climate change resilience (published 2019) informed by NRC experts
- CSA A123.26 Standard for climate resilience of low slope membrane roofing systems (published 2021) created based on NRC research
- National Guide for Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) fires for Canada (published 2021)
- Impact assessment of the costs-benefits of applying the WUI Guide across Canada. (published 2021)
- Guide for Design of Flood-Resistant Buildings (new and existing) (published 2021)
- CSA Z800 Guideline on Basement flood protection and risk reduction (published 2018) informed by NRC experts
- Practical guidance for private-side drainage systems to reduce basement flood risk (published 2021).
Climate resiliency research and the National Model Codes
The NRC's research, both under CRBCPI and other programs led by the Construction Research Centre, also contributed to informing the Canadian Commission on Building and Fire Codes (CCBFC) technical committees in their work to develop updated provisions in published editions of the National Model Codes. These updates include:
The 2020 edition of the National Model Codes:
- Update to the historic wind design data to replace data from 2010
- New provisions for snow loading of roofs
- Updates to suites of standards referenced in the National Building Code of Canada including: fenestration, exterior insulation finish systems, fire tests, air barriers and asphalt shingles
- Update to explanatory material on durability, including a reference to CSA S478, "Durability in buildings," which was converted to a standard from a guideline
- Provisions enabling construction of tall wooden buildings in Canada
The 2015 edition of the National Model Codes:
- Improved design to resist wind failure of commercial roofing
- Improved design to resist moisture failure of exterior facades
- Provisions enabling construction of mid-rise wooden buildings in Canada
The codes development system is currently working on potential future technical updates to the national model codes, including areas related to overheating, and future climatic data. The role of the codes in climate resilience in other areas is also being discussed by the Canadian Board for Harmonized Construction Codes (CBHCC) as part of ongoing policy work.
Climate Resilient Built Environment Initiative – 2021-2026
Research to support climate resilient buildings and infrastructure continues under the Climate Resilient Built Environment Initiative (CRBE), which began in 2021. Building upon the work under CRBCPI, the NRC is now:
- Undertaking an impact assessment of moving to the structural design of buildings for future snow and wind loads
- Developing guidance documents for the design of flood-resistant buildings (the third publication in this series) that looks at flood load combinations
- Undertaking research to assist in updating the CSA S478 Standard on durability in buildings and CSA A440 series on fenestration to account for future climate data
- Working with Standards Council of Canada to begin the development of a standard based on the National Guide for Wildland Urban Interface fires.
Global Resiliency Dialogue
The NRC has also been collaborating as part of the Global Resiliency Dialogue to develop the Global Building Resilience Guidelines (2022) (PDF, 1.8 MB), a document that provides a framework for jurisdictions around the world to consider as they work to effectively integrate future‑focused climate science into building codes and standards.
The NRC has numerous research facilities and teams examining the predicted impacts of climate change and extreme weather on buildings. Examples include:
- Dynamic Roofing Facility – a chamber that simulates the effects of wind on actual roofing systems and installations (including commercial membrane roofing, green roofs, and photo voltaic (PV) module connections)
- Storm water simulator to measure the ability of roofing assemblies (such as green roofs) to retain water and mitigate urban flooding
- Dynamic Wall Testing Facility – to examine the ability of wall assemblies to resist wind-driven rain
- Fire safety testing facility to assess the wildfire ignition potential of materials and structures, this facility includes an NRC ember generator.
- Field trials in Tuktoyaktuk to examine techniques for mitigating permafrost thaw
Modeling capabilities including:
- Whole building modeling to understand the best strategies for preventing indoor overheating during heat waves
- Urban heat island modeling for future climates and the impact of mitigation methods
- Hygrothermal (heat and moisture) modeling of building materials – to assess ability to wet and dry out in different climates
- Modeling of wildfire embers, radiation, flame, smoke
- Mapping of wildland urban interface hazards including the anticipated impacts of climate change
Other NRC facilities are examining climate impacts on other types of infrastructure.
- The NRC's Ocean Coastal and River Engineering Research Centre is using wave basins and modelling to examine the performance of dams in a changing climate and the use of nature-based solutions to mitigate coastal erosion and coastal flooding.
- The NRC's Aerospace Research Centre has wind tunnels, where researchers have been examining the performance of bridge stay cables in different climate conditions, including ice.
- The NRC's Construction Research Centre has a coupled corrosion lab, where researchers have been examining the impacts of corrosion on the durability of concrete bridge components and effective mitigation/rehabilitation techniques.
Construction innovation stories
- Integrating climate resilience into building and design guides, standards and codes through the Climate Resilient Buildings and Core Public Infrastructure (CRBCPI) Initiative
- New National Guide for Wildland-Urban Interface Fires
- Future climate data for buildings and infrastructure design now includes the impacts of climate change
- International building code development/research organizations agree to cooperate on enhancing resilience through codes
- Enabling innovative technologies for climate resilient buildings and infrastructure
- Improving resilience to flooding
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