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[CCMC 12627-R] CCMC Canadian code compliance evaluation

From: National Research Council Canada

In most jurisdictions this document is sufficient evidence for approval by Canadian authorities.

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Compliance opinion

It is the opinion of the Canadian Construction Materials Centre that the evaluated product, when used as structural composite lumber in accordance with the conditions and limitations stated in this evaluation, complies with the following code:

National Building Code of Canada 2015

ID Code provision Solution type
04-03-01-01-00-0-004.3.1.1.(1) Buildings and their structural members m ...Acceptable
09-23-02-02-00-0-009.23.2.2.(1) Ends of wood joists, beams and other mem ...Alternative
09-23-04-02-00-0-009.23.4.2.(3) Spans for built-up wood and glued-lamina ...Alternative
09-23-10-01-00-0-009.23.10.1.(1) The size and spacing of studs shall conf ...Alternative

Ontario Building Code

Ruling No. 05-19-143 (12627-R) authorizing the use of this product in Ontario, subject to the terms and conditions contained in the Ruling, was made by the Minister of Municipal Affairs and Housing on 2006-01-31 (revised 2010-02-17) pursuant to s.29 of the Building Code Act, 1992 (see Ruling for terms and conditions). This Ruling is subject to periodic revisions and updates.


The above opinion(s) is/are based on the evaluation by the CCMC of technical evidence provided by the evaluation holder, and is bound by the stated conditions and limitations. For the benefit of the user, a summary of the technical information that forms the basis of this evaluation has been included.

Product information

Product name

TimberStrand®LSL

Product description

The product is laminated strand lumber (LSL), which is a structural composite lumber manufactured from strands of wood species or species combinations blended with an isocyanate-based binder adhesive. The wood species, species combinations, and binder adhesive used are as specified in the Weyerhaeuser "TimberStrand® LSL Manufacturing Standards." The strands are oriented along the direction parallel to the length of the member. The mats are pressed to the required thickness using a steam injection press. The product is available in thicknesses up to 140 mm, depths up to 1 220 mm, and lengths up to 14.63 m.

The product is treated with zinc borate and may be used within the building envelope (i.e., in protected assemblies) as sill plates over masonry or concrete foundations, footings, or slabs.

Independent, third-party quality assurance monitoring and inspection is conducted by PFS Corporation, Los Angeles, CA, and/or by Intertek Testing Services NA Ltd., Coquitlam, BC.

The permitted design values are outlined in the Technical information section.

Isometric view of the product

Figure 1. Product details for TimberStrand® LSL

Manufacturing plant

This evaluation is valid only for products produced at the following plant:

Product nameManufacturing plant
Kenora, ON, CA
TimberStrand®LSLProduct evaluated by the CCMC

Product evaluated by the CCMC Indicates that the product from this manufacturing facility has been evaluated by the CCMC

  Conditions and limitations

The CCMC’s compliance opinion is bound by this product being used in accordance with the conditions and limitations set out below.

  • The product, as with all structural composite lumber, is intended for dry service applications only.Footnote (1)
  • The product is intended for use in construction as an alternative material to lumber. Proprietary design values presented for the product are to be used by professional engineers for design in accordance with CSA O86-14, "Engineering Design in Wood," for structural applications such as beams, headers, joists, rafters, studs, and columns, as intended by the product manufacturer. The specific application must be qualified through testing and validated by the manufacturer. Applications such as I-joist flanges and metal-plated truss chords are beyond the scope of this evaluation.
  • The product is treated with zinc borate and may be used within the building envelope as sill plates over masonry or concrete foundations, footings, or slabs (AWPA Use Category UC2) as long as the product is not in contact with the ground but may be subjected to dampness.
  • The product is considered equivalent to sawn lumber floor joists with respect to its fire-resistance rating for equivalent member size and spacing within a rated floor assembly, including the wood floor assemblies in Table 9.10.3.1.-B, Fire and Sound Resistance of Floors, Ceilings and Roofs, of Division B of the NBC 2015. The product may also be considered equivalent to sawn lumber for use as a firestop material.
  • See Appendix B for the conditions and limitations for the use of the product as studs in shear walls.
  • The pre-engineered tables in the literature below have been provided to the CCMC by Weyerhaeuser to demonstrate compliance with Part 9, Housing and Small Buildings, of the NBC 2015 for acceptance by the local authority having jurisdiction (AHJ):
    1. Weyerhaeuser's pre-engineered tablesFootnote (2)

      When the product is used to support uniform loads only, the installation must be in accordance with the tables and installation details published in the documents by Weyerhaeuser entitled: 

      1. "Beams, Headers, and Columns (TJ-9505) (Limit States Design for Western Canada)," July 2016;
      2. "Beams, Headers, and Columns (TJ-9500) (Limit States Design for Eastern Canada)," October 2017; and
      3. "Select Beam Design Tables (TB-354)," February 2019.
         

      When TimberStrand® LSL (32 mm thickness) is used as a rim board supporting uniform loads only, the installation must be in accordance with the information and details contained in:

      1. "Technical Bulletin for 1-1/4" Rim Board, TimberStrand LSL (2542)."Footnote (3)


      Except where a floor is required to support a concentrated load or a specified unfactored live load in excess of 1.9 kN/m2, and in lieu of engineering design, the spans for the product when used as floor joists, rafters, and beams may conform to the spans for Select Structural Grade for the Douglas Fir – Larch (D Fir–L) group in Span Tables 9.23.4.2-A to 9.23.4.2-I of the NBC 2015. Maximum deflections must conform to Subsection 9.4.3., Deflections, of Division B of the NBC 2015. Floor joists must be designed to meet the deflection and vibration criteria set in the NBC 2015 for lumber.

      The product must be installed in accordance with Weyerhaeuser's installation guidelines noted in the above-mentioned documents for those applications falling within the scope of the documents. Applications outside the scope of these installation guidelines require engineering on a case-by-case basis.

    2. Weyerhaeuser's installation details

      Weyerhaeuser’s pre-engineered details within the documents identified as (1), (2), and (3) and outlined in Section i. above are limited in scope to building designs where the anticipated loads on the following structural details are not exceeded:

      • floor and/or snow (plf) tables (pages 6–7 of (2), page 5 of (1));
      • beam installation details (page 12 of (2), page 10 of (1));
      • nails installed on the narrow face (page 13 of (2), page 11 of (1));
      • allowable holes in beams (page 14 of (2), page 12 of (1));
      • tapered end cuts (page 15 of (2), page 13 of (1));
      • multiple-member connections for side-loaded beams (pages 16–17 of (2), pages 14–15 of (1));
      • multiple-member connections for top-loaded beams (page 18 of (2), page 16 of (1));
      • rim board installation details (page 2 of (4)); and
      • vertical load resistance (page 3 of (4)).
    3. Engineering required

      When required by the AHJ or for structural applications beyond the scope/limitations of the above-referenced Weyerhaeuser publications, the drawings or related documents must bear the authorized seal of a professional engineer (or other certified authority approved by the AHJ) who is skilled in wood design and licensed to practise under the appropriate provincial or territorial legislation.

      Installations beyond the scope/limitations of Sections i. and ii. imply, but are not limited to, the following:

      • higher loads/longer spans than the manufacturer's pre-engineered details;
      • concentrated loads;
      • areas of high wind or high seismicity;
      • design of supporting members/columns when the total beam/header load exceeds the NBC 2015 pre-engineered beam/lintel tables; and
      • design of supporting foundation footings when the total load exceeds the NBC 2015 pre-engineered floor/roof joist tables.

      The engineer must design in accordance with CSA O86-14 and may consult the "Engineering Guide for Wood Frame Construction," published by the Canadian Wood Council.

      The specified strengths for the product must not exceed the values set forth in the Technical information section of this evaluation. See Figure 2 for strand orientation with respect to loading.

      The factored resistances of the rim board product are shown in Table 4.

      The ends of all product members used as joists, rafters, and beams must be restrained to prevent rollover. This is normally achieved by attaching a diaphragm sheathing to the top or to the compression edge and to an end wall or shear transfer panel capable of transferring a minimum unfactored uniform load of 730 N/m or the required shear forces due to wind or seismic conditions. Blocking or cross-bracing with the equivalent strength may also be used.

      The compression edges of all product members used as joists, rafters, and beams must be laterally supported at least every 610 mm, except where designed in accordance with CSA O86-14.

      Nailing of the product perpendicular to the wide face of strand (WFS) must conform to Table 9.23.3.4., Nailing for Framing, of Division B of the NBC 2015. Edge nailing of the product parallel to the WFS must conform to Table 2.

    4. Engineering support provided by the manufacturer

      Weyerhaeuser may provide engineering services in conjunction with Weyerhaeuser product specification and offers the following support contact number for its Canadian offices: 888-453-8358.

  • This product must be identified with the phrase "CCMC 12627-R" along its side. This CCMC number is only valid when it appears in conjunction with the WH-ETL certification mark of Intertek Testing Services and/or the mark of PFS Corporation. In addition, because the product is treated with zinc borate, it must be further identified with the designations "StrandGuard®" and "AWPA UC2."

  Technical information

This evaluation is based on demonstrated conformance with the following criteria:

Evaluation requirements
Criteria number Criteria name
CCMC-TG-061710-15BCCMC Technical Guide for Structural Composite Lumber

The evaluation holder has submitted technical documentation for the CCMC's evaluation. Testing was conducted at laboratories recognized by the CCMC. The corresponding technical evidence for this product is summarized below.

Design requirements
Table 1. TimberStrand® LSL specified strengths (MPa)Table footnote footnote (1)Table footnote footnote (2)Table footnote footnote (3)
Grade

Modulus of Elasticity

E

Axial – tension parallel to grain FtTable footnote footnote (4) Axial – compression parallel to grain Fc Joist or beamTable footnote footnote (1) – flexure FbTable footnote footnote (5)Table footnote footnote (6) Joist or beamTable footnote footnote (1) – shear Fv Joist or beamTable footnote footnote (1) – compression perpendicular to grain Fcperp

PlankTable footnote footnote (1) – flexure FbTable footnote footnote (7)

PlankTable footnote footnote (1) – shear Fv PlankTable footnote footnote (1) – compression perpendicular to grain Fcperp
1.30E 8 965 13.70 20.21 21.65 5.39 8.92 24.20 1.95 7.92Table footnote footnote (8)
1.35E 9 310 15.05 20.94 23.41 5.66 9.39 26.19 1.95 8.27
1.40E 9 655 16.40 21.68 25.18 5.93 9.87 28.18 1.95 8.62
1.45E 9 995 17.75 22.41 26.94 6.19 10.34 30.16 1.95 8.98
1.50E 10 345 19.10 23.14 28.70 6.46 10.81 32.15 1.95 9.33
1.55E 10 685 20.40 23.88 29.60 6.73 11.28 33.30 1.95 9.69
1.60E 11 030 21.65 24.61 30.90 7.00 11.75 34.40 1.95 10.04Table footnote footnote (9)
1.65E 11 375 22.45 25.35 32.03 7.27 12.23 35.68 1.95 10.39
1.70E 11 720 23.25Table footnote footnote (10) 26.08 33.15 7.54 12.70 36.95 1.95 10.75
1.75E 12 065 24.29 26.82 34.66 7.81 13.17 38.70 1.95 11.10
1.80E 12 410 25.33 27.55Table footnote footnote (11) 36.18 8.07Table footnote footnote (12) 13.64Table footnote footnote (13) 40.45 1.95 11.45
1.85E 12 755 26.36 27.55Table footnote footnote (11) 37.69 8.07Table footnote footnote (12) 13.64Table footnote footnote (13) 42.20 1.95 11.81
1.90E 13 100 27.40 27.55Table footnote footnote (11) 39.20 8.07Table footnote footnote (12) 13.64Table footnote footnote (13) 43.95 1.95 12.16
1.95E 13 445 28.51 27.55Table footnote footnote (11) 40.55 8.07Table footnote footnote (12) 13.64Table footnote footnote (13) 45.46 1.95 12.52
2.00E 13 790 29.63 27.55Table footnote footnote (11) 41.90 8.07Table footnote footnote (12) 13.64Table footnote footnote (13) 46.98 1.95 12.87
2.05E 14 135 30.74 27.55Table footnote footnote (11) 43.25 8.07Table footnote footnote (12) 13.64Table footnote footnote (13) 48.49 1.95 13.22
2.10E 14 480 31.85 27.55Table footnote footnote (11) 44.60 8.07Table footnote footnote (12) 13.64Table footnote footnote (13) 50.00 1.95 13.58

Isometric profile drawings oriented to demonstrate edge (joist) loading and face (plank) loading
Figure 2. Load direction with respect to strand orientation
  1. Edge (joist) loading
  2. Face (plank) loading

Notes

  • Edge/joist loading is parallel to the wide face of strand
  • Face/plank loading is perpendicular to the wide face of strand
Table 2. TimberStrand® LSL fastener detail: all grades
Fastener property Nail orientation Load direction Specific gravity (SG) of equivalent species for design purposes
Nail withdrawal Edge Withdrawal Spruce-Pine-Fir, SG = 0.42
Nail withdrawal Face Withdrawal Douglas Fir-Larch, SG = 0.50
Lateral nail capacity Edge Parallel to grain Douglas Fir-Larch, SG = 0.50
Lateral nail capacity Edge Perpendicular to grain Douglas Fir-Larch, SG = 0.50
Lateral nail capacity Face Parallel to grain Douglas Fir-Larch, SG = 0.50
Lateral nail capacity Face Perpendicular to grain Douglas Fir-Larch, SG = 0.50
Bolt bearing capacity Parallel to grain Douglas Fir-Larch, SG = 0.50
Bolt bearing capacity Perpendicular to grain Douglas Fir-Larch, SG = 0.50
  Bolt size Load direction Specified strength (N)
Lag screw capacity 12.7 mm Parallel to grain 2 820Footnote (1)
Lag screw capacity 12.7 mm Perpendicular to grain 2 820Footnote (1)
Table 3. Nail spacing requirements for TimberStrand® LSL
Closest on centre nail spacing parallel to the wide face of strand (WFS) orientation (mm)Footnote (1) Footnote (2)
Common nail size Nominal member thickness (mm)
32 38 44.5–89 89
1 row 2 rows 1 row 2 rows 1 row 2 rows 3 rows 3 rows
63.5 mm × 3.33 mm 102 102 76 76 76 76 76 76
76 mm × 3.75 mm 102 102 76 76 76 76 76 76
89 mm × 4.11 mm 152Footnote (3) 152Footnote (3) 152Footnote (3) 152Footnote (3) 152Footnote (4) 152Footnote (4) 152Footnote (4) 152Footnote (4)
Table 4. TimberStrand® LSL 1.3E rim board: factored vertical load resistance valuesFootnote (1)
Nominal thickness (mm) Limit states design – factored vertical load resistanceFootnote (2) (kN/m) Depth range (mm)
32Footnote (3) 98.20 ≤ 406
32Footnote (3) 79.75 > 406, ≤ 508
38 95.65 ≤ 610
Table 5. TimberStrand® LSL stud and shearwall applicationsFootnote (1) Footnote (2)
TimberStrand® LSL grade NailingFootnote (3) Footnote (4) Equivalent species for framing material
GradeFootnote (5) < 1.5E Panel edge nailing of 150 mm Spruce-Pine-Fir
1.5E ≤ Grade < 1.6E Panel edge nailing of 75 mmFootnote (6) to 150 mm Spruce-Pine-Fir
1.6E ≤ Grade ≤ 1.7E Panel edge nailing of 75 mm to 150 mm Douglas Fir-Larch
Manufacturing quality assurance program

The manufacturing quality assurance program has been updated to include requirements specified in ASTM D5456-13a, "Standard Specification for Evaluation of Structural Composite Lumber Products," and has been verified by independent, third-party monitoring and inspection conducted by PFS Corporation and Intertek Testing Services NA Ltd. as part of the product certification.

Design values obtained from testing to ASTM D5456-13a  

The design values obtained from testing to ASTM D5456-13a, as specified in CSA O86-14, are summarized below.

Table 6. Additional test information for TimberStrand® LSL
Property Test information
Bending Specimens were tested in edgewise and flatwise bending directions to establish the characteristic value. Data from quality control (QC) tests were used to establish the applicable coefficient of variation, CVw, and the reliability normalization factor from CSA O86-14 was used to determine the specified strength.
Shear Specimens were tested in shear to establish the characteristic value. Data from QC tests were used to establish the applicable coefficient of variation, CVw, and the reliability normalization factor from CSA-O86-14 was used to determine the specified strength.
Compression parallel to grain Specimens were tested in compression parallel to grain to establish the characteristic value. Data from QC tests were used to establish the applicable coefficient of variation, CVw, and the reliability normalization factor from CSA-O86-14 was used to determine the specified strength.
Compression perpendicular to grain Specimens were tested in compression perpendicular to grain to establish the characteristic value. The two methods, namely min. density and 0.04 in. deformation stress, were used with a voluntary adjustment of 0.71 by the proponent. The characteristic value was multiplied by 1.09 to establish the specified strength in accordance with CSA O86-14 and ASTM D5456-13a.
Tension parallel to grain Specimens were tested in tension to establish the characteristic value. Data from QC tests were used to establish the applicable coefficient of variation, CVw, and the reliability normalization factor from CSA-O86-14 was used to determine the specified strength.
Nail withdrawal Nail withdrawal values were established following ASTM D1761-12, "Standard Test Methods for Mechanical Fasteners in Wood," for an 8d common nail having a 31.75 mm penetration. Specimens were tested, and equivalent species capacity was determined in accordance with ASTM D5456-13a, A2.4.
Nail bearing Dowel bearing strength was determined in accordance with ASTM D5764-97a, "Standard Test Method for Evaluating Dowel-Bearing Strength of Wood and Wood-Based Products," using 10d common nails with a nominal diameter of 3.76 mm and a lead hole diameter of 2.77 mm. Specimens were tested, and the mean bearing capacity was used to establish the equivalent species capacity in accordance with ASTM D5456-13a, A2.5.
Bolt bearing Bolt bearing capacity was determined in accordance with ASTM D5764-97a using 12.5 mm and 19.0 mm bolts. Specimens were tested, and the mean bolt bearing capacity was used to establish the equivalent species capacity in accordance with ASTM D5456-13a, A2.5.
Creep and recovery A total of 240 specimens were tested to a short-term and long-term creep assessment program. The creep performance of the product was found to be equal to or better than Aspen lumber. Long-term (90-day) creep testing was also conducted. It demonstrated equivalency to the duration of load behaviour of sawn lumber.
Fire resistance Two full-scale floor assemblies were tested, one containing sawn lumber joists and the other containing TimberStrand® LSL joists. Charring rate tests were also conducted for comparison. The testing and performance were considered adequate to demonstrate equivalency to the fire resistance of sawn lumber joists within a fire-rated floor assembly.
Adhesive See CSA O325-07, "Construction Sheathing" (OSB binder requirements). For adhesive and species mix qualification, additional creep testing was conducted in accordance with CCMC's creep and recovery test. After conditioning of the specimens, the creep and recovery performance was considered favourable.
Zinc borate treatment As the product is treated with zinc borate in accordance with AWPA N2-03, "Composite Wood Products, Preservative Treatment by Nonpressure Processes," it was found to be effective in controlling decay from environmental conditions expected in sill plate applications.
Stud (general) Notching: Strength and stiffness reduction for a 22 mm × 75 mm notch in 1.3E TimberStrand® LSL was compared with "standard and better" Douglas fir sawn lumber (not NBC-specified minimum stud lumber). The Douglas fir lumber showed 70% reduction, while the 1.3E LSL showed 43% reduction.
End nail connection: Lateral nail capacity of 10 stud/plate connections was tested with 4 mm to 82 mm (16d) nails, and a minimum 5 kN was attained, which exceeds the 3.77 kN criterion.
Nail slip, en, performance (optional): The sheathing-to-framing connection was tested for nail slip, and in combination with the full-scale shearwall test results, 1.3E grade showed a similar load–slip relationship to "dry assemblies/dry use" SG = 0.50 material.
Studs in shearwalls Full-scale shearwall tests of various combinations and permutations of LSL grades, sheathing thickness, nail size, and spacing were undertaken to verify equivalency to lumber shearwalls in Table 9.5.1.A in CSA O86-09. Testing was performed following the CUREE protocol in Method C, ASTM E2126, "Standard Test Methods for Cyclic (Reversed) Load Test for Shear Resistance of Vertical Elements of the Lateral Force Resisting Systems for Buildings." Three parameters needed to be met based on the equivalent energy elastic-plastic (EEEP) curve. The three parameters included: (i) ductility (μ) ≥ 11; (ii) drift capacity (Du) ≥ 0.028H; and (iii) 2.3 ≤ overstrength (Ω) ≤ 5.0. These criteria were met for the LSL grades, panel edge spacing, and species adjustment outlined in Table 5.
Conditions and limitations for stud and shearwall applications  

For use in Part 9 applications:

  1. For general stud applications, notwithstanding that Article 9.23.5.3., Wall Studs, of the NBC 2015 permits notching of stud grade lumber up to 1/3 of the depth, TimberStrand® LSL studs must not be notched more than 1/4 of stud depth.
  2. Braced wall panels utilizing LSL studs are subject to the limitations in Article 9.23.1.1., Limitations, of the NBC 2015, as applicable.
  3. Fasteners for sheathing must conform to Tables 9.23.3.5.-A., 9.23.3.5.-B., and 9.23.3.5.-C. of the NBC 2015.
  4. Appropriate LSL grade must be specified for stud size, and spacing must conform to Table 9.23.10.1. of the NBC 2015.
  5. LSL stud-braced walls must be detailed in accordance with Subsection 9.23.13., Bracing to Resist Lateral Loads Due to Wind and Earthquake, of the NBC 2015.

For use in Part 4 applications:

  1. Blocked shear walls with LSL studs can be used as lateral load resisting systems in wood construction in Canada with no height limitation. Unblocked shear walls are limited to a height of 4.88 m (16 ft.) in accordance with Section 11.4.4 of CSA O86-14.
  2. When a vertical load is present on any wall, it should be included in the design of the wall studs, especially in the case of high walls, to avoid potential stud buckling.
  3. Framing members must be at least 38 mm thick in shear walls and diaphragms. For diaphragms with multiple rows of fasteners, framing members must be at least 64 mm thick and 64 mm wide at boundaries or adjoining panel edges in accordance with Clause 11.5.3.2 of CSA O86-14.
  4. Blocked shear walls must be used in high seismic zones (i.e., Part 4, where IEFaSa(0.2) ≥ 0.35, and Part 9, where Sa(0.2) ≥ 0.7, of the NBC 2015).
  5. For double-sided walls, LSL studs must be a minimum nominal 2 in. × 6 in. Nails must be attached in accordance with Clause 11.5.5.2 and Table 11.5.4 of CSA O86-14.
  6. In cases where double studs are used in walls with LVL/LSL studs, the connection between plies must be designed with mechanical fasteners to resist the shear force at the stud interface and prevent separation of the studs. Relatively large forces are generated between the studs during the shear wall response, especially in the end studs and in studs on the perimeters of the panels.
  7. The nail diameter for sheathing-to-framing connections in any wall must not exceed 3.7 mm.
  8. The nail spacing in any case must be equal to or greater than the minimum nail spacing of 76 mm.
  9. The size of the nail heads should be equal to or larger than those of the nails used in the testing program.
  10. A maximum sheathing thickness of 15.8 mm (5/8 in.) can be used in combination with the same length of nails and nail spacing as used in the testing. A sheathing thickness greater than 15.8 mm (5/8 in.) is not permitted.
  11. See Table 5, Note 5.
  12. The stud spacing must not exceed 610 mm (2 ft.) o.c.

Administrative information

Use of Canadian Construction Materials Centre (CCMC) assessments

This assessment must be read in the context of the entire CCMC Registry of Product Assessments, any applicable building code or by-law requirements, and/or any other regulatory requirements (for example, the Canada Consumer Product Safety Act, the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, etc.).

It is the responsibility of the user to confirm that the assessment they are using is current and has not been withdrawn or superseded by a later version on the CCMC Registry of Product Assessments.

Disclaimer

The National Research Council of Canada (NRC) has evaluated only the characteristics of the specific product described herein. The information and opinions in this evaluation are directed to those who have the appropriate degree of experience to use and apply its contents (such as authorities having jurisdiction, design professionals and specifiers). This evaluation is valid when the product is used as part of permitted construction, respecting all conditions and limitations stated in the evaluation, and in accordance with applicable building codes and by-laws.

This evaluation is provided without representation, warranty or guarantee of any kind, expressed or implied, and the NRC provides no endorsement for any evaluated product. The NRC accepts no responsibility whatsoever arising in any way from any and all use of or reliance on the information contained herein or the use of any evaluated product. The NRC is not undertaking to render professional or other services on behalf of any person or entity nor to perform any duty owed by any person or entity to another person or entity.

Language

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Copyright

© His Majesty the King in Right of Canada, as represented by the National Research Council of Canada, 2024

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the CCMC.

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