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[CCMC 14132-R] CCMC Canadian code compliance evaluation

From: National Research Council Canada

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Compliance opinion

It is the opinion of the Canadian Construction Materials Centre that the evaluated products, when used as an exterior cladding in accordance with the conditions and limitations stated in this evaluation, comply with the following code:

National Building Code of Canada 2015

ID Code provision Solution type
04-03-01-01-00-0-004.3.1.1. Design Basis for WoodAcceptable
09-20-02-01-00-0-009.20.2.1. Masonry Unit StandardsAlternative
09-20-05-01-00-0-009.20.5.1. Masonry SupportAlternative
09-20-06-00-00-0-009.20.6. Thickness and HeightAlternative
09-27-02-00-00-0-009.27.2. Required Protection from PrecipitationAcceptable

The above opinion(s) is/are based on the evaluation by the CCMC of technical evidence provided by the evaluation holder, and is bound by the stated conditions and limitations. For the benefit of the user, a summary of the technical information that forms the basis of this evaluation has been included.

Product information

Product names

  • KuraStone™ LedgeStone
  • KuraStone™ StackedStone

Product description

KuraStone™ is a glass-fibre reinforced cement cladding panel that is mechanically attached to a proprietary(1) engineered structural wood sheathing and stud framing design detailed in Appendix A.

The product is composed of Portland cement, sand, glass fibre, resin, a water-reducing agent, pigments, and paint. The product is cast in moulds that produce different textures, and then cured at room temperature. KuraStone™ is available in different sizes, 260 mm, 390 mm or 650 mm in length, with 150 mm in width and approximately 35 mm in thickness. KuraStone™ has two product profiles, StackedStone and LedgeStone, shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2, respectively. They offer different textures and patterns, with the same dimensions.

 
StackedStone installed

Figure 1. StackedStone

 
LedgeStone installed

Figure 2. LedgeStone

The KuraStone™ products are mechanically attached to the supporting structure using metal clips and metal fasteners. The Nichiha metal starter track is attached to the bottom of the first row of KuraStone™. The top and bottom edges of KuraStone™ have grooves to clips that are attached to the supporting structures. The Nichiha metal clips are ZAM® (zinc-aluminum-magnesium alloy, Commercial Steel Type B, ASTM A1046M, ZMM275, Type 1, chemically treated, non-oiled) coated steel and the fasteners are minimum No. 8 × ¾ in. fully threaded stainless steel wood screws. The clips are designed to create a 10-mm-deep drained and vented air space behind the cladding (i.e., a rainscreen system) and placed at each vertical joint and at the centre of the bottom of each individual piece. Figure 3 and Figure 4 illustrate a typical installation of KuraStone™ and a typical clip layout, respectively.

Instead of the masonry being supported on the foundation, the product is supported by the wood frame. Therefore, the product must be installed according to the proprietary wood-frame construction details. These construction details are in Appendix A, and include increased top and bottom plates, less stud spacing, horizontal sheathing, etc.

 
KuraStone™ cladding installed

Figure 3. A typical KuraStone™ installation

 
A typical clip layout for the product

Figure 4. A typical clip layout

  1. KuraStone™ piece
  2. Clip-on joint
  3. Additional clip required at center of bottom each piece

Manufacturing plant

This evaluation is valid only for products produced at the following plant:

Product namesManufacturing plant
Jiaxing Harbor, China
KuraStone™ LedgeStoneProduct evaluated by the CCMC
KuraStone™ StackedStoneProduct evaluated by the CCMC

Product evaluated by the CCMC Indicates that the product from this manufacturing facility has been evaluated by the CCMC

  Conditions and limitations

The CCMC’s compliance opinion is bound by this product being used in accordance with the conditions and limitations set out below.

General

  • The components of the backup wall construction must be in full compliance with the requirements of Part 9, Housing and Small Buildings, of Division B of the NBC 2015 in conjunction with the conditions and limitations listed in this evaluation.
  • The product is limited to use as exterior cladding for buildings falling within the scope of Part 9, Housing and Small Buildings, of Division B of the NBC 2015, in conjunction with the conditions and limitations listed in this evaluation. It must be installed on structural grade wood sheathing boards that are attached to wood framing in accordance with the backup wall design specified in Appendix A of this evaluation.
  • The product is limited to installation on buildings not exceeding two storeys, with a maximum height of 3 m per floor, with a maximum building plan of 24 m × 12 m and with a maximum floor joist clear span of 8 m. The joist span tables referred in Article 9.23.4.2., Spans for Joists, Rafters and Beams, of Division B of the NBC 2015, apply to floors supported by sawn lumber joists. If the framing is other than sawn lumber (e.g. I-joist), the floors are required to be designed in conformance with Part 4, Structural Design, of Division B of the NBC 2015.
  • The product is limited to installations in geographical areas where the 1-in-50 hourly wind pressure is ≤ 0.85 kPa and the building is Category 2 for internal pressure (Cpi: –0.45 to +0.30), as defined in Article 4.1.7.7., Internal Pressure Coefficient, of Division B of the NBC 2015. The wind design value has been validated for the product installed over 11-mm-thick oriented strandboard (OSB) installed horizontally with blocking.
  • The product must be applied in geographical areas where the spectral response acceleration Sa(0.2) is 1.2 or less, and the building is on a Class C site or better, as defined in Article 4.1.8.4., Site Properties, of Division B of the NBC 2015.
  • The 10-mm air space that is created by the clips must remain unobstructed, to form a clear drainage layer behind the product.
  • At least one layer of wall-sheathing membrane conforming to Article 9.27.3.2., Sheathing Membrane Material Standard, of Division B of the NBC 2015, must be applied beneath the cladding products. The sheathing membrane must be applied in accordance with Article 9.27.3.3., Required Sheathing Membrane and Installation, of Division B of the NBC 2015.
  • The product must be installed with suitable flashing to drain water from the drainage layer to the exterior and to protect the exposed top edge of the cladding.
  • Flashing must be installed in accordance with the requirements of Articles 9.27.3.7., Flashing Materials, and 9.27.3.8., Flashing Installation, of Division B of the NBC 2015.
  • The impact resistance of the product makes it susceptible to hard- and soft-body impacts. However, the ease of replacing the product makes it suitable for normal use in upper floors and protected ground floors. When used at ground floors exposed to high impacts, special precautions must be taken, such as guardrails or raised gardens.
  • Fire blocks must be installed in accordance with the requirements of Article 9.10.16.2., Required Fire Blocks in Wall Assemblies, of Division B of the NBC 2015.
  • The product must be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s current instructions “KuraStone Installation Guide” dated September 2019.
  • To obtain an acceptable performance, a high level of quality control at all stages of the exterior wall construction is imperative.
  • This evaluation is applicable only to products identified by the phrase “CCMC 14132-R.”

Structural

  • The product is to be installed on a pre-engineered wood frame designed to support this proprietary product. The installation of the product must be in accordance with the engineering analysis as prepared by Moses Structural Engineers Inc., Report No. 17.206-01, dated July 8, 2019. The pre-engineered design solutions are produced in the engineering analysis and reproduced in Appendix A of this evaluation along with the detailed design and construction requirements. The provided pre-engineered design solutions have the following features:
    • they are only applied to new construction,
    • the nailing of the top and bottom plates is increased,
    • squash blocks are required to support the I-joists, and
    • exterior sheathing is installed with the strong axis (face grain) oriented horizontally with blocking;
  • When the product is used outside the scope and limitations of Moses Structural Engineers Inc.’s Report No. 17.206-01 dated July 8, 2019, a special engineering analysis must be carried out by a licensed professional engineer skilled in structural design, who must sign and seal the related analysis, confirming its conformance to Part 4 of the NBC 2015.
  • The stud wall must consist of 38-mm × 140-mm No. 1/No. 2 grade Spruce-Pine-Fir (S-P-F) or No. 1/No. 2 grade Douglas-fir. A hole not greater than 25 mm in diameter is permitted at the centreline of the stud. The plates used in the framing of the back-up wall must be No. 2 grade S-P-F plates.
  • The fasteners for sheathing must conform to the following tables:
    • Table 9.23.3.5-B, Fasteners for Sheathing where 0.8 kPa ≤ 1-in-50 HWP < 1.2 kPa and Sa(0.2) ≤ 0.90 or where 0.70 < Sa(0.2) ≤ 0.90; or
    • Table 9.23.3.5-C, Fasteners for Sheathing where 0.8 kPa ≤ 1-in-50 HWP < 1.2 kPa and Sa(0.2) ≤ 1.8 or where 0.90 < Sa(0.2) ≤ 1.8, of Division B of the NBC 2015.

Table 9.23.3.5-A, Fasteners for Subflooring and for Sheathing where the 1-in-50 HWP < 0.8 kPa and Sa(0.2) ≤ 0.70, must not be used.

  • The clips must be attached to a minimum 12-mm-thick OSB, which is supported by untreated wood studs spaced at 600 mm or less, or 12.5-mm plywood sheathing conforming to CSA O121-08, “Douglas Fir Plywood,” or CSA O151-09, “Canadian Softwood Plywood.”
  • A sufficient horizontal joint must be provided to mitigate adverse effects of inter-storey vertical settlement due to wood shrinkage (6.5 mm per storey).
  • The clips must be ZAM® (zinc-aluminum-magnesium alloy, Commercial Steel Type B, ASTM A1046M, ZMM275, Type 1, chemically treated, non-oiled) coated steel. The fastening screws used to secure the cladding through the clips must be minimum No. 8 × ¾ in. fully threaded stainless steel wood screws. A minimum of two screws must be used per clip.
  • Cladding attachments must conform with: Sentence 9.27.5.1.(1), Attachment (of Cladding); Article 9.27.5.5., Fastener Materials; and Article 9.27.5.7., Penetration of Fasteners, of Division B of the NBC 2015. For any other mode of attaching a cladding system to sheathing, the structural sufficiency of the sheathing and the whole backing, in conjunction with the clips and type of fasteners, must be in accordance with the engineering analysis as prepared by Moses Structural Engineers Inc. in Report 17.206-01, dated July 8, 2019.

  Technical information

This evaluation is based on demonstrated conformance with the following criteria:

Evaluation requirements
Criteria number Criteria name
CCMC-TG-074646.01-15CCMC Technical Guide for Mechanically Attached, Glass-Fibre-Reinforced Cement Cladding
Material requirements
Table 1. Results of testing the prescriptive requirements of KuraStone™
Property Unit Requirement Result
Alkali resistance of glass fibre ASTM C 1666 “Standard Specification for Alkali Resistant (AR) Glass Fiber for GFRC and Fiber Reinforced Concrete and Cement” Pass
Dimensional tolerances: length mm ≤ ± 3 2
width mm ≤ ± 3 2
thickness % ≤ 15 PassTable footnote (1)
squareness mm/m ≤ ± 1.3 PassTable footnote (2)
edge straightness mm/m ≤ ± 1.3 PassTable footnote (2)
Water absorption % ≤ 40 9.8
Density kg/m3 ≥ 950 1 917
Dimensional change in length % < 0.20 0.015
Flexural strength MPa > 7.0 9.4Table footnote (3)
Water vapour transmission (water method) ng/(Pa·s·m2) > 60 140
Watertightness No drops of water None
Warm water resistance: loss in flexural strength % ≤ 15 5
deleterious effects No visible deterioration None
Freeze-thaw resistance (unidirectional): loss in mass % ≤ 3 1
deleterious effects No visible deterioration None
Freeze-thaw resistance (multidirectional): loss in flexural strength % ≤ 15 1
Table 2. Results of testing of the pullout, shear and bending properties of the clip
Property Unit Requirements Pult Factored resistanceTable footnote (1) Results
Pullout test with both cladding and clipTable footnote (2) N ≥ 1 000 627Table footnote (3) 423 Pass
Pullout test with clip onlyTable footnote (4) N ≥ 1 000 863Table footnote (3) 467 Pass
Shear and bendingTable footnote (5) N Report value 334 302 Pass
Performance requirements
Table 3. Results of testing for impact resistance of the product
Impact body Requirements Results
Dynamic mass (kg) Energy (N·m)
Safety impact: large soft 50 100 PassTable footnote (1)
hard 1 10 PassTable footnote (1)
Retention of performance impact: large soft 50 34 Pass
small soft 30 60 PassTable footnote (2)
hard 1 10 PassTable footnote (2)
Table 4. Results of testing of wind load resistance of the product
Product Frame Stud spacing (mm) Fastening Designed wind value (kPa) Result
KuraStone™ 8 ft. × 8 ft. frame was built with
2 in. × 6 in. S-P-F lumber and sheathed with 11.1-mm-thick OSB
610 No. 8 × 1-1/4 in. stainless steel wood screws Q50 < 0.85 Pass
Table 5. Deflection measurements from the wind load resistance test
Product Maximum wind pressure for deflection measurements (Pa) Deflection (mm)Table footnote (1)
Positive pressure Negative pressure
KuraStone™ 1 915Table footnote (2) 11.79 11.56
Fire performance
Table 6. Results of fire performance testing
Property Requirement Result
Non-combustibilityTable footnote (1) CAN/ULC-S114-05 Non-combustible
Flame-spread rating (FSR)Table footnote (2) CAN/ULC-S102-10 0
Smoke developed classification (SDC)Table footnote (2) 0
Appendix A: Pre-engineered design solutions  

The pre-engineered solutions must be in full accordance with the engineering analysis prepared by Moses Structural Engineers in Report No. 17.206-01, dated July 8, 2019. Tables in sections A1 to A4 provide the main pre-engineering solutions for buildings not exceeding two storeys and with a height of 3.05 m per floor.

A1. Maximum allowable stud spacing for 2 × 6 stud wall (S-P-F No. 1 / No. 2 lumber) for 1-in-50 hourly wind pressure up to 0.65 kPa

  • Exterior wall studs 2.4-m to 3.05-m long
  • S-P-F No. 1 / No. 2 lumber
  • For 1-in-50 hourly wind pressure up to 0.65 kPa
Table 7. Maximum allowable stud spacing for 2 × 6 stud wall (S-P-F No. 1 / No. 2 lumber) for 1-in-50 hourly wind pressure up to 0.65 kPaTable footnote footnote (1)
Supporting Max. height (m) Design snow load
1 kPa 1.5 kPa 2 kPa 2.5 kPa 3 kPa
Max. stud spacing (mm) Max. stud spacing (mm) Max. stud spacing (mm) Max. stud spacing (mm) Max. stud spacing (mm)
Roof only 2.4 600 600 600 600 600
2.7 600 600 600 600 600
3.05 600 600 600 600 600
Roof + one storey 2.4 600 600 600 600 400
2.7 600 600 600 600 400
3.05 600 600 600 600 400
Roof + two storeys 2.4 400 400 400 400 400
2.7 400 400 400 400 400
3.05 400 400 400 400 400

A2. Maximum allowable stud spacing for 2 × 6 stud wall (S-P-F No. 1 / No. 2 lumber) for 1-in-50 hourly wind pressure up to 0.85 kPa

  • Exterior wall studs 2.4-m to 3.05-m long
  • S-P-F No. 1 / No. 2 lumber
  • For 1-in-50 hourly wind pressure up to 0.85 kPa
Table 8. Maximum allowable stud spacing for 2 × 6 stud wall (S-P-F No. 1 / No. 2 lumber) for 1-in-50 hourly wind pressure up to 0.85 kPaTable footnote footnote (1)
Supporting Max. height (m) Design snow load
1 kPa 1.5 kPa 2 kPa 2.5 kPa 3 kPa
Max. stud spacing (mm) Max. stud spacing (mm) Max. stud spacing (mm) Max. stud spacing (mm) Max. stud spacing (mm)
Roof only 2.4 600 600 600 600 600
2.7 600 600 600 600 600
3.05 400 400 400 400 400
Roof + one storey 2.4 600 600 600 600 400
2.7 600 600 600 600 400
3.05 400 400 400 400 400
Roof + two storeys 2.4 400 400 400 400 400
2.7 400 400 400 400 400
3.05 400 400 400 400 400

A3. Maximum allowable stud spacing for 2 × 6 stud wall (Douglas-fir No. 1 / No. 2 lumber) for 1-in-50 hourly wind pressure up to 0.65 kPa

  • Exterior wall studs 2.4-m to 3.05-m long
  • Douglas-fir No. 1 / No. 2 lumber
  • For 1-in-50 hourly wind pressure up to 0.65 kPa
Table 9. Maximum allowable stud spacing for 2 × 6 stud wall (Douglas-fir No. 1 / No. 2 lumber) for 1-in-50 hourly wind pressure up to 0.65 kPaTable footnote footnote (1)
Supporting Max. height (m) Design snow load
1 kPa 1.5 kPa 2 kPa 2.5 kPa 3 kPa
Max. stud spacing (mm) Max. stud spacing (mm) Max. stud spacing (mm) Max. stud spacing (mm) Max. stud spacing (mm)
Roof only 2.4 600 600 600 600 600
2.7 600 600 600 600 600
3.05 600 600 600 600 600
Roof + one storey 2.4 600 600 600 600 600
2.7 600 600 600 600 600
3.05 600 600 600 400 400
Roof + two storeys 2.4 600 600 600 400 400
2.7 600 600 600 400 400
3.05 400 400 400 400 400

A4. Maximum allowable stud spacing for 2 × 6 stud wall (Douglas-fir No. 1 / No. 2 lumber) for 1-in-50 hourly wind pressure up to 0.85 kPa

  • Exterior wall studs 2.4-m to 3.05-m long
  • Douglas-fir No. 1 / No. 2 lumber
  • For 1-in-50 hourly wind pressure up to 0.85 kPa
Table 10. Maximum allowable stud spacing for 2 × 6 stud wall (Douglas-fir No. 1 / No. 2 lumber) for 1-in-50 hourly wind pressure up to 0.85 kPaTable footnote footnote (1)
Supporting Max. height (m) Design snow load
1 kPa 1.5 kPa 2 kPa 2.5 kPa 3 kPa
Max. stud spacing (mm) Max. stud spacing (mm) Max. stud spacing (mm) Max. stud spacing (mm) Max. stud spacing (mm)
Roof only 2.4 600 600 600 600 600
2.7 600 600 600 600 600
3.05 600 600 600 600 600
Roof + one storey 2.4 600 600 600 600 600
2.7 600 600 600 600 600
3.05 400 400 400 400 400
Roof + two storeys 2.4 600 600 600 400 400
2.7 400 400 400 400 400
3.05 400 400 400 400 400

A5. Exterior sheathing panel layout

The exterior sheathing panel layout is illustrated in the following figure.

The exterior sheathing panel layout

Figure 5. Exterior sheathing panel layout: (a) 400 mm o.c. stud spacing, (b) 600 mm o.c. stud spacing

  1. 1 000 mm typical width for calculation purposes
  2. 400 mm o.c.
  3. Top plate
  4. Blocking at sheathing panel edges
  5. Stud
  6. Sheathing to be installed horizontally only
  7. Bottom plate
  8. 600 mm o.c.

A6. Details of stud wall construction

The details of stud wall construction with sawn lumber joist are illustrated in the following figure.

Stud wall construction
Figure 6. Details of stud wall construction with sawn lumber joists
  1. Provide dampproof course between wood and concrete
  2. Min 38 mm × 140 mm (2 × 6) sill plate
  3. Anchor bolt
  4. Rim board to match floor joists, nail floor ply to rim board**
  5. Floor ply
  6. Min 38 mm × 140 mm (2 × 6) bottom plate
  7. Min 12 mm CSP 4-ply, or 12 mm OSB installed horizontally and nailed with min 63-mm-long common nails @ 150 mm o.c. all edges in accordance with Table 9.23.3.5.-B or 9.23.3.5.-C of the NBC 2015.
  8. 38 mm × 140 mm (2 × 6) blocking at sheathing edges, nail each panel edge as noted above
  9. Min 38 mm × 140 mm (2 × 6) top plate
  10. 2 - 82-mm long nails (wall plate to joist) in accordance with Table 9.23.3.4. of the NBC 2015
  11. 2 - 82-mm long end nails (stud to plate) in accordance with Table 9.23.3.4. of the NBC 2015
  12. 2 - 82-mm long toe nails (floor joist to sill) in accordance with Table 9.23.3.4. of the NBC 2015
  13. 82-mm-long nails (rim to sill) in accordance with Table 9.23.3.4. of the NBC 2015
  14. 38 mm × 89 mm (2 × 4) squash blocking at same spacing as stud wall above
  15. KuraStoneTM
  16. 1 200 mm typical horizontal sheathing 
  17. Concrete foundation 

**Note: if rim board thickness is less than 44 mm, provide double sill plate at each floor. Minimum rim board thickness is 28 mm.

A7. Details of stud wall construction with I-joists

The details of stud wall construction with I-joists are illustrated in the following figure.

Wall construction with I joints
Figure 7. Details of stud wall construction with I-joists
  1. Provide dampproof course between wood and concrete
  2. Min 38 mm × 140 mm (2 × 6) sill plate
  3. Anchor bolt
  4. Rim board to match floor joists, nail floor ply to rim board**
  5. Floor ply
  6. Min 38 mm × 140 mm (2 × 6) bottom plate
  7. Min 12 mm CSP 4-ply, or 12 mm OSB installed horizontally and nailed with min 63-mm-long common nails @ 150 mm o.c. all edges in accordance with Table 9.23.3.5.-B or 9.23.3.5.-C of the NBC 2015
  8. 38 mm × 140 mm (2 × 6) blocking at sheathing edges, nail each panel edge as noted above
  9. Min 2 - 38 mm × 140 mm (2 × 6) top plate
  10. 2 - 82-mm-long nails (wall plate to joist in accordance with Table 9.23.3.4. of the NBC 2015 
  11. 2 - 82-mm-long end nails (stud to plate) in accordance with Table 9.23.3.4. of the NBC 2015
  12. 2 - 82-mm-long toe nails (floor joist to sill) in accordance with Table 9.23.3.4. of the NBC 2015
  13. 82-mm-long nails (rim to sill) in accordance with Table 9.23.3.4. of the NBC 2015
  14. 38 mm × 89 mm (2 × 4) squash blocking at same spacing as stud wall above
  15. KuraStoneTM
  16. 1 200 mm typical horizontal sheathing
  17. Concrete foundation
  18. 1 000 minimum

**Note: if rim board thickness is less than 44 mm, provide double sill plate at each floor. Minimum rim board thickness is 28 mm.

A8. Maximum lintel span

The maximum lintel spans for S-P-F No. 1 / No. 2 lumber and for Douglas Fir-Larch (D Fir-L) No. 1 / No. 2 lumber are shown in the following tables.

Table 11. Maximum lintel span for S-P-F No. 1 / No. 2 lumber (mm)(1)
Supporting 2 – 2 × 6 2 – 2 × 8 2 – 2 × 10 2 – 2 × 12
Roof only 800 910 1 060 1 180
Roof + one storey 510 570 670 740
Roof + two storeys 370 420 490 540
Table 12. Maximum lintel span for D Fir-L No. 1 / No. 2 lumber (mm)Table footnote footnote (1)
Supporting 2 – 2 × 6 2 – 2 × 8 2 – 2 × 10 2 – 2 × 12
Roof only 870 1 060 1 290 1 490
Roof + one storey 640 720 850 940
Roof + two storeys 470 530 620 690

Administrative information

Use of Canadian Construction Materials Centre (CCMC) assessments

This assessment must be read in the context of the entire CCMC Registry of Product Assessments, any applicable building code or by-law requirements, and/or any other regulatory requirements (for example, the Canada Consumer Product Safety Act, the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, etc.).

It is the responsibility of the user to confirm that the assessment they are using is current and has not been withdrawn or superseded by a later version on the CCMC Registry of Product Assessments.

Disclaimer

The National Research Council of Canada (NRC) has evaluated only the characteristics of the specific product described herein. The information and opinions in this evaluation are directed to those who have the appropriate degree of experience to use and apply its contents (such as authorities having jurisdiction, design professionals and specifiers). This evaluation is valid when the product is used as part of permitted construction, respecting all conditions and limitations stated in the evaluation, and in accordance with applicable building codes and by-laws.

This evaluation is provided without representation, warranty or guarantee of any kind, expressed or implied, and the NRC provides no endorsement for any evaluated product. The NRC accepts no responsibility whatsoever arising in any way from any and all use of or reliance on the information contained herein or the use of any evaluated product. The NRC is not undertaking to render professional or other services on behalf of any person or entity nor to perform any duty owed by any person or entity to another person or entity.

Language

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© His Majesty the King in Right of Canada, as represented by the National Research Council of Canada, 2024

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the CCMC.

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